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User Guide

RESPX is a mock router, capturing requests sent by HTTPX, mocking their responses.

Inspired by the flexible query API of the Django ORM, requests are filtered and matched against routes and their request patterns and lookups.

Request patterns are bits of the request, like host method path etc, with given lookup values, combined using bitwise operators to form a Route, i.e. respx.route(path__regex=...)

A captured request, matching a Route, resolves to a mocked httpx.Response, or triggers a given side effect. To skip mocking a specific request, a route can be marked to pass through.

Mock HTTPX

To patch HTTPX, and activate the RESPX router, use the respx.mock decorator/context manager, or the respx_mock pytest fixture.

Using the Decorator

import httpx
import respx


@respx.mock
def test_decorator():
    my_route = respx.get("https://example.org/")
    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
    assert my_route.called
    assert response.status_code == 200

Using the Context Manager

import httpx
import respx


def test_ctx_manager():
    with respx.mock:
        my_route = respx.get("https://example.org/")
        response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
        assert my_route.called
        assert response.status_code == 200

Using the pytest Fixture

import httpx


def test_fixture(respx_mock):
    my_route = respx_mock.get("https://example.org/")
    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
    assert my_route.called
    assert response.status_code == 200

Router Settings

The RESPX router can be configured with built-in assertion checks and an optional base URL.

By configuring, an isolated router is created, and settings are locally bound to the routes added.

Either of the decorator, context manager and fixture takes the same configuration arguments.

See router configuration reference for more details.

Configure the Decorator

When decorating a test case with configured router settings, the test function will receive the router instance as a respx_mock argument.

@respx.mock(...)
def test_something(respx_mock):
    ...

Configure the Context Manager

When passing settings to the context manager, the configured router instance will be yielded.

with respx.mock(...) as respx_mock:
    ...

Configure the Fixture

To configure the router when using the pytest fixture, decorate the test case with the respx pytest marker.

@pytest.mark.respx(...)
def test_something(respx_mock):
    ...

Base URL

When adding a lot of routes, sharing the same domain/prefix, you can configure the router with a base_url to be used for added routes.

import httpx
import respx

from httpx import Response


@respx.mock(base_url="https://example.org/api/")
async def test_something(respx_mock):
    async with httpx.AsyncClient(base_url="https://example.org/api/") as client:
        respx_mock.get("/baz/").mock(return_value=Response(200, text="Baz"))
        response = await client.get("/baz/")
        assert response.text == "Baz"

Assert all Mocked

By default, asserts that all sent and captured HTTPX requests are routed and mocked.

@respx.mock(assert_all_mocked=True)
def test_something(respx_mock):
    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")  # Not mocked, will raise

If disabled, all non-routed requests will be auto-mocked with status code 200.

@respx.mock(assert_all_mocked=False)
def test_something(respx_mock):
    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")  # Will auto-mock
    assert response.status_code == 200

Assert all Called

By default, asserts that all added and mocked routes were called when exiting decorated test case, context manager scope or exiting a text case using the pytest fixture.

@respx.mock(assert_all_called=True)
def test_something(respx_mock):
    respx_mock.get("https://example.org/")
    respx_mock.get("https://some.url/")  # Not called, will fail the test

    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
@respx.mock(assert_all_called=False)
def test_something(respx_mock):
    respx_mock.get("https://example.org/")
    respx_mock.get("https://some.url/")  # Not called, yet not asserted

    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
    assert response.status_code == 200

Routing Requests

The easiest way to add routes is to use the HTTP Method helpers.

For full control over the request pattern matching, use the route API.

Routes are matched and routed in added order. This means that routes with more specific patterns should to be added earlier than the ones with less "details".

HTTP Method Helpers

Each HTTP method has a helper function (get, options, head, post, put, patch, delete), shortcutting the route API.

my_route = respx.get("https://example.org/", params={"foo": "bar"})
response = httpx.get("https://example.org/", params={"foo": "bar"})
assert my_route.called
assert response.status_code == 200

See .get(), .post(), ... helpers reference for more details.

Route API

Patterns

With the route API, you define a combined pattern to match, capturing a sent request.

my_route = respx.route(method="GET", host="example.org", path="/foobar/")
response = httpx.get("https://example.org/foobar/")
assert my_route.called
assert response.status_code == 200

See .route() reference for more details.

Lookups

Each pattern has a default lookup. To specify what lookup to use, add a __<lookup> suffix.

respx.route(method__in=["PUT", "PATCH"])

Combining Patterns

For even more flexibility, you can define combined patterns using the M() object, together with bitwise operators (&, |, ~), creating a reusable pattern.

hosts_pattern = M(host="example.org") | M(host="example.com")
my_route = respx.route(hosts_pattern, method="GET", path="/foo/")

response = httpx.get("http://example.org/foo/")
assert response.status_code == 200
assert my_route.called

response = httpx.get("https://example.com/foo/")
assert response.status_code == 200
assert my_route.call_count == 2

NOTE

M(url="//example.org/foobar/") is equal to M(host="example.org") & M(path="/foobar/")

Named Routes

Routes can be named when added, and later accessed through the respx.routes mapping.

This is useful when a route is added outside the test case, e.g. access or assert route calls.

import httpx
import respx

# Added somewhere else
respx.get("https://example.org/", name="home")


@respx.mock
def test_route_call():
    httpx.get("https://example.org/")
    assert respx.routes["home"].called
    assert respx.routes["home"].call_count == 1

    last_home_response = respx.routes["home"].calls.last.response
    assert last_home_response.status_code == 200

Reusable Routers

As described under settings, an isolated router is created when calling respx.mock(...).

Isolated routers are useful when mocking multiple remote APIs, allowing grouped routes per API, and to be mocked individually or stacked for reuse across tests.

Use the router instance as decorator or context manager to patch HTTPX and activate the routes.

import httpx
import respx

from httpx import Response


api_mock = respx.mock(assert_all_called=False)
api_mock.route(
    url="https://api.foo.bar/baz/",
    name="baz",
).mock(
    return_value=Response(200, json={"name": "baz"}),
)
...


@api_mock
def test_decorator():
    response = httpx.get("https://api.foo.bar/baz/")
    assert response.status_code == 200
    assert response.json() == {"name": "baz"}
    assert api_mock["baz"].called


def test_ctx_manager():
    with api_mock:
        ...

NOTE

Named routes in a reusable router can be directly accessed via my_mock_router[<route name>]

Route with an App

As an alternative one can route and mock responses with an app by passing either a respx.WSGIHandler or respx.ASGIHandler as side effect when mocking.

Sync App Example

import httpx
import respx

from flask import Flask

app = Flask("foobar")


@app.route("/baz/")
def baz():
    return {"ham": "spam"}


@respx.mock(base_url="https://foo.bar/")
def test_baz(respx_mock):
    app_route = respx_mock.route().mock(side_effect=WSGIHandler(app))
    response = httpx.get("https://foo.bar/baz/")
    assert response.json() == {"ham": "spam"}
    assert app_route.called

Async App Example

import httpx
import respx

from starlette.applications import Starlette
from starlette.responses import JSONResponse
from starlette.routing import Route


async def baz(request):
    return JSONResponse({"ham": "spam"})


app = Starlette(routes=[Route("/baz/", baz)])


@respx.mock(base_url="https://foo.bar/")
async def test_baz(respx_mock):
    app_route = respx_mock.route().mock(side_effect=ASGIHandler(app))
    response = await httpx.AsyncClient().get("https://foo.bar/baz/")
    assert response.json() == {"ham": "spam"}
    assert app_route.called

Mocking Responses

To mock a route response, use <route>.mock(...) to either...

The route's mock interface is inspired by pythons built-in Mock() object, e.g. side_effect has precedence over return_value, side effects can either be functions, exceptions or an iterable, raising StopIteration when "exhausted" etc.

Mock a Response

Create a mocked HTTPX Response object and pass it as return_value.

respx.get("https://example.org/").mock(return_value=Response(204))

See .mock() reference for more details.

You can also use the <route>.return_value setter.

route = respx.get("https://example.org/")
route.return_value = Response(200, json={"foo": "bar"})

Mock with a Side Effect

RESPX side effects works just like the python Mock side effects.

It can either be a function to call, an exception to raise, or an iterable of responses/exceptions to respond with in order, for repeated requests.

respx.get("https://example.org/").mock(side_effect=...)

You can also use the <route>.side_effect setter.

route = respx.get("https://example.org/")
route.side_effect = ...

Functions

Function side effects will be called with the captured request argument, and should either...

  • return a mocked Response.
  • raise an Exception to simulate a request error.
  • return None to treat the route as a non-match, continuing testing further routes.
  • return the input Request to pass through.
import httpx
import respx


def my_side_effect(request):
    return httpx.Response(201)


@respx.mock
def test_side_effect():
    respx.post("https://example.org/").mock(side_effect=my_side_effect)

    response = httpx.post("https://example.org/")
    assert response.status_code == 201

Optionally, a side effect can include a route argument for cases where call stats, or modifying the route within the side effect, is needed.

import httpx
import respx


def my_side_effect(request, route):
    return httpx.Response(201, json={"id": route.call_count + 1})


@respx.mock
def test_side_effect():
    respx.post("https://example.org/").mock(side_effect=my_side_effect)

    response = httpx.post("https://example.org/")
    assert response.json() == {"id": 1}

    response = httpx.post("https://example.org/")
    assert response.json() == {"id": 2}

If any of the route patterns are using a regex lookup, containing named groups, the regex groups will be passed as kwargs to the side effect.

import httpx
import respx


def my_side_effect(request, slug):
    return httpx.Response(200, json={"slug": slug})


@respx.mock
def test_side_effect_kwargs():
    route = respx.route(url__regex=r"https://example.org/(?P<slug>\w+)/")
    route.side_effect = my_side_effect

    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/foobar/")
    assert response.status_code == 200
    assert response.json() == {"slug": "foobar"}

A route can even decorate the function to be used as side effect.

import httpx
import rexpx


@respx.route(url__regex=r"https://example.org/(?P<user>\w+)/", name="user")
def user_api(request, user):
    return httpx.Response(200, json={"user": user})


@respx.mock
def test_user_api():
    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/lundberg/")
    assert response.status_code == 200
    assert response.json() == {"user": "lundberg"}
    assert respx.routes["user"].called

Exceptions

To simulate a request error, pass a httpx.HTTPError subclass, or any Exception as side effect.

import httpx
import respx


@respx.mock
def test_connection_error():
    respx.get("https://example.org/").mock(side_effect=httpx.ConnectError)

    with pytest.raises(httpx.ConnectError):
        httpx.get("https://example.org/")

Iterable

If the side effect is an iterable, each repeated request will get the next Response returned, or exception raised, from the iterable.

import httpx
import respx


@respx.mock
def test_stacked_responses():
    route = respx.get("https://example.org/")
    route.side_effect = [
        httpx.Response(404),
        httpx.Response(200),
    ]

    response1 = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
    response2 = httpx.get("https://example.org/")

    assert response1.status_code == 404
    assert response2.status_code == 200
    assert route.call_count == 2

Shortcuts

Respond

For convenience, <route>.respond(...) can be used as a shortcut to return_value.

respx.post("https://example.org/").respond(201)

See .respond() reference for more details.

Modulo

For simple mocking, a quick way is to use the python modulo (%) operator to mock the response.

The right-hand modulo argument can either be ...

An int representing the status_code to mock:

respx.get("https://example.org/") % 204

response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
assert response.status_code == 204

A dict used as kwargs to create a mocked HTTPX Response, with status code 200 by default:

respx.get("https://example.org/") % dict(json={"foo": "bar"})

response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
assert response.status_code == 200
assert response.json() == {"foo": "bar"}

A HTTPX Response object:

respx.get("https://example.org/") % Response(418)

response = httpx.get("https://example.org/")
assert response.status_code == httpx.codes.IM_A_TEAPOT

Rollback

When exiting a decorated test case, or context manager, the routes and their mocked values, i.e. return_value and side_effect, will be rolled back and restored to their initial state.

This means that you can safely modify existing routes, or add new ones, within a test case, without affecting other tests that are using the same router.

import httpx
import respx

# Initial routes
mock_router = respx.mock(base_url="https://example.org")
mock_router.get(path__regex="/user/(?P<pk>\d+)/", name="user") % 404
...


@mock_router
def test_user_exists():
    # This change will be rolled back after this test case
    mock_router["user"].return_value = httpx.Response(200)

    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/user/123/")
    assert response.status_code == 200


@mock_router
def test_user_not_found():
    response = httpx.get("https://example.org/user/123/")
    assert response.status_code == 404

Pass Through

If you want a route to not capture and mock a request response, use .pass_through().

import httpx
import respx


@respx.mock
def test_remote_response():
    respx.route(host="localhost").pass_through()
    response = httpx.get("http://localhost:8000/")  # response from server

See .pass_through() reference for more details.


Mock without patching HTTPX

If you don't need to patch HTTPX, use httpx.MockTransport with a REPX router as handler, when instantiating your client.

import httpx
import respx


router = respx.Router()
router.post("https://example.org/") % 404


def test_client():
    mock_transport = httpx.MockTransport(router.handler)
    with httpx.Client(transport=mock_transport) as client:
        response = client.post("https://example.org/")
        assert response.status_code == 404


def test_client():
    mock_transport = httpx.MockTransport(router.async_handler)
    with httpx.AsyncClient(transport=mock_transport) as client:
        ...

NOTE

To assert all routes is called, you'll need to trigger <router>.assert_all_called() manually, e.g. in a test case or after yielding the router in a pytest fixture, since there's no auto post assertion done like when using respx.mock.

Hint

You can use RESPX not only to mock out HTTPX, but actually mock any library using HTTP Core transports.


Call History

The respx API includes a .calls object, containing captured (request, response) named tuples and MagicMock's bells and whistles, i.e. call_count, assert_called etc.

Asserting calls

assert respx.calls.called
assert respx.calls.call_count == 1

respx.calls.assert_called()
respx.calls.assert_not_called()
respx.calls.assert_called_once()

Retrieving mocked calls

A matched and mocked Call can be retrieved from call history, by either unpacking...

request, response = respx.calls.last
request, response = respx.calls[-2]  # by call order

...or by accessing request or response directly...

last_request = respx.calls.last.request
assert json.loads(last_request.content) == {"foo": "bar"}

last_response = respx.calls.last.response
assert last_response.status_code == 200

Local route calls

Each Route object has its own .calls, along with .called and .call_count shortcuts.

import httpx
import respx


@respx.mock
def test_route_call_stats():
    route = respx.post("https://example.org/baz/") % 201
    httpx.post("https://example.org/baz/")

    assert route.calls.last.request.url.path == "/baz/"
    assert route.calls.last.response.status_code == 201

    assert route.called
    assert route.call_count == 1

    route.calls.assert_called_once()

Reset History

The call history will automatically reset when exiting mocked context, i.e. leaving a decorated test case, or context manager scope.

To manually reset call stats during a test case, use respx.reset() or <your_router>.reset().

import httpx
import respx


@respx.mock
def test_reset():
    respx.post("https://foo.bar/baz/")
    httpx.post("https://foo.bar/baz/")

    assert respx.calls.call_count == 1
    respx.calls.assert_called_once()

    respx.reset()

    assert len(respx.calls) == 0
    assert respx.calls.call_count == 0
    respx.calls.assert_not_called()